Balance downforce is developed through the careful management of airflow under and over the car. Four of the most effective devices for closed-wheel race cars are
FRONT UPPER LOWER CARNARD, FRONT SPLITTER, SIDE SKIRT (BARGE BOARDS), REAR CARNARD, REAR SPOILER & WING. These aero devices produce big forces at high speeds, which are mostly on the straights where you don’t want downforce or drag. Downforce is most useful in fast corners and while braking. Adding the right amount of downforce in a way that produces the least additional drag is the goal.
A splitter produces downforce from the difference in air pressure on the top and bottom surfaces of the splitter area. Because airflow over the top is blocked by the body, the local airspeed is low and the air pressure on top is high. Because air can flow under the splitter freely, the local airspeed under it is high and the air pressure on the bottom side is low.
More splitter area produces more front downforce, but only up to a point. The effectiveness of adding a splitter area falls rapidly as it extends away from the body being 4 to 5 inches. The downforce that a splitter creates changes with a height from the ground.
A rear spoiler makes consistent downforce and also generates a lot of drag along with that downforce, so a big spoiler has a strong effect on top speed. Spoilers have proven to be effective at low speeds as well.
A smooth, properly shaped wing with large end plates in a clean airflow field can produce as much as 8 pounds of downforce for every pound of drag that it creates. Without the rear wing makes the car is more skittish in corners, hard to slow into heavy braking zones, and corner exit traction is limited on medium to fast corners.
Combining the side skirts and rear diffuser, it is to slow the flow back down again and gives the used airflow from the undertray of the car as much possible space to exit from the rear end. This ultimately means that if the air can escape more easily from under the car, then more air at faster velocities can flow under the undertray of the car creating a lower pressure and therefore higher downforce.
The diffuser increases in volume along its length, creating a void that has to be filled by the air passing under the body. This Venturi effect means that the flow is accelerated through the throat of the diffuser, creating the desired low pressure, then gradually returning to the same velocity at which it joined the wake. It is important to re-equalize the large pressure difference that the undertray creates between it and the ambient pressure which surrounds the car. Without a diffusion system in place to gradually slow the air down, significant drag would be induced by the forced, sudden mixture of high and low-pressure airflow. Additionally, the expanding air exiting our diffuser is able to interact with the rear spoiler/wing improving their combined performance.
With a set of front canards Improve the downforce, and aerodynamics, and add a more aggressive look to the front end of your vehicle. Canards are those cool wing-like-looking objects that are found bolted onto the front bumpers of race cars. These have been designed to provide more downforce to the front of the vehicle for improved high-speed stability while reducing lift.
The rear canards can reduce the lift of the tail of the vehicle, increase the stability of the vehicle and provide security. If the lift of the tail is larger than the lift of the front, it is easy to cause excessive steering of the vehicle,
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